the complete guide to rc electronics
Due to the obvious simplicity and ease of use of my hobby RC electronics, I often find it interested in my project.
However, it took me a while to figure out how to put all the different components together, find out where to get everything from and read all (Quite strange)
Ratings when I try to build something.
So I hope this guide will speed you up and bring successful projects.
Quick reference: 1-
Where to get parts2-Transmitter3 -Reciever4 -Servos5 -
Engine, propeller and gear 7-
After a lot of research, I found that the following points are reliable, reasonable in price and have a good choice :-
Huo bijin: a Chinese
Dealers with a large number of motors, controllers and other products.
Mainly flying things.
Transportation is always needed. -
Horizon hobbies: based in the United States, there are also a large number of goods to choose from, but mainly on the groundbased vehicles.
There are other cheaper websites.
However, I have heard that the reliability and customer service of these products are often compromised.
Also often abbreviated to Tx, this is something that actually takes commands and sends servo system and motor commands to the receiver.
There are many transmitters on the market now, and the price is low
About $30 starts.
However, the remote control for RC aircraft or helicopter pilots, with programmable functions, model memories and computer simulators, can start at about $150 and cost nearly $3000.
All RC remotes have a certain frequency of operation.
The old analog remote control runs at a lower frequency, which is determined by the crystal.
Modern digital remote controls usually work within a gigabit hertz range, usually at 2. 4GHZ.
Both the RC aircraft and the helicopter remote control have control rods, which are mostly self-explanatory.
Usually, one of the two control rods on the aircraft remote control is the throttle control rod, not the spring load in the vertical direction, which means that it won\'t bounce back when you let it go.
The remote control usually has this stick on the left or right side and is sold as Mode 1 or Mode 2.
The RC car remote has a trigger and a knob to control something different.
Most RC remotes have something called trim next to the control bar.
This basically changes the position of the control rod a little and is very useful for fine changing the position of the servo system or the starting point of the motor controller.
The transmitter also often has a reversal, reversing the output signal of the control bar.
This is usually controlled by a series of switches at the bottom of the transmitter.
The number of channels in the remote control shows how much it can control.
For example, a three-channel remote control can control three things, such as three servo systems, three motors, or a combination of any of them.
The motor controller and the servo system receive the same type of signal.
Expo, telemetry, limited travel and model memories are all seen on better and more expensive transmitters, but not necessary for regular projects.
The Expo represents the exponential rate, so the linear movement of your control bar will result in the exponential output signal curve.
Telemetry transmits information from vehicles (
Such as battery voltage, height, motor temperature, etc. )
Go back to the transmitter and display these on the transmitter.
Limited travel means that by moving your control stick to the maximum, it will only signal 30% or whatever you set up.
Both features are good for sensitive institutions and aircraft so that people can have better control over them.
Model memory only allows you to store your trim settings in the transmitter so you can recall them for later use, or, if you have multiple devices, no need to re-adjust every time.
RC car remote controls are usually equipped with double rates, exposition, memory and even telemetry.
To ensure proper communication, most transmitters need to be bound to the receiver.
How to do this depends on your transmitter/receiver.
Many transmitters are usually powered by 8AA batteries and need 12 v for operation.
These 8 batteries are too much for me, so I got a small, 0.
Battery for 8Ah and connect it to my remote so I just have to worry about one battery instead of 8 small ones.
A cheap novice
The level transmitter I can recommend from personal experience is HobbyKing 6 s.
The receiver is abbreviated as Rx, which receives the signals of the transmitter and sends them to individual channels via PPM or pulse position modulation commands.
The receiver must work on the same frequency as the transmitter, and the two are usually sold together.
There are usually replacement or extra receivers so that if one has more than one device that requires a receiver, they don\'t need to switch it out.
The receiver usually receives power by inserting the motor controller into one of the signal ports.
The servo system receives power from the receiver.
The polarity of the plug is usually found by trial and error that it will work to some extent, while to another extent it may show flashing lights or something like that.
Make sure you never connect one line with the other with the opposite polarity, because depending on these two things, they are likely to be damaged, because a person will be anti-polar.
Some servo or motor controller connectors have a small plastic label so they can only be used with RC car receivers that can be easily removed with a wire cutter.
Be careful with the antennas of the digital receivers because they are difficult to reconnect.
The servo system is a deceleration motor that is connected to a potentiometer that can normally rotate at 180 degrees, but the RC control usually only rotates at 90 degrees.
They receive commands from the receiver in PPM form and rotate to the set position.
They will try to keep this position if f force is applied.
Although the range of ordinary servo systems is limited, there are extended range servo systems with rotation of more than 360 degrees, and even continuous rotary servo systems that do not control electronic equipment and can be used as ordinary Gear Motors
They all have standard three-pin connectors, grounded (black), +4. 8 to 7. 4v (red), and signal (white).
The servo system is usually classified by weight and also has a torque rating.
This grade is usually in kilograms.
This means that there is a force of x kg on the rotary axis of the servo mechanism.
So 50 kg servo can provide from Axis 1 cm of 50 kg force (
Or from Axis 25 kg 2 cm and. . . ).
Due to the current demand, some large servo systems require separate power supplies, and it is likely that the power supply of the speed controller or the PCB trace of the receiver will be burned.
Use UBEC on these things.
This is basically just a step-down voltage regulator that provides constant voltage to the servo system.
Motor controller also known as ESC (
Electronic speed controller
Very simple to use.
Their purpose is to receive low-power input signals in the form of ppm and battery voltage and convert them into useful signals for the motor.
They also have the voltage output through the signal wire, which is usually used to power the receiver.
There are basically two types of motor controllers: brushless and brushed controllers.
The Brush Motor controller works only with the brush motor and sends them PWM, pulse width modulation (
Not PPM, Pulse Position Modulation)power input.
These are both simple and cheap, and can also be used to control the lights and anything that requires a DC power supply.
The brushless motor controller is very different.
They switch power between two combinations of the three poles of the brushless motor and are modulated according to the PPM signal speed.
The difference between the car ESC and the aircraft ESC is that the car ESC usually has a power switch, radiator and reverse capacity, while the aircraft ESC does not have reverse capacity (
Switch any two of the motor wires to the reverse rotation of the motor)
, No power switch, usually only the smallest radiator.
ESC is also programmable, usually through programming cards or receivers and transmitters.
This will vary depending on ESC, but usually they have programmable braking, start-up, and battery voltage cut-off settings.
There are two variants of the motor: there is a brush motor and a brushless motor, the former has a small brush to switch the power supply through the coil, and the latter requires an external controller to switch for them.
The brushless motor is generally more efficient, can handle higher speeds and torque, can handle a large amount of power, and lasts longer due to no brush wear.
They usually come out. runner or in-runner styles.
Outrunners have permanent magnets on the outside, and their housing rotates with the axle.
There is a permanent magnet inside the Inrunners and there is a non-
Rotate the shell.
Our propeller has more torque but less speed and is usually used with larger propellers.
The torque of Inrunners is small, but it can reach a high speed, so it is used for gear applications such as RC cars or small propellers.
The motor in the RC world usually has an interesting grade called Kv.
While one would think it would mean a thousand volts, it actually means a rotation per minute per volt.
In theory, the 300Kv motor will rotate at 900 rpm at a speed of 3 volts.
The lower the Kv rating, the greater the torque, but the lower the speed of the motor, the faster the speed of the motor, the smaller the torque.
Potential buyers may encounter problems such as \"1247\" or \"12 X4\" when looking for the right propeller. 7\".
These define the size and spacing of the propeller.
In this case, one will see a diameter of 12 inch, 4.
7 inch from the propeller.
Spacing is defined as the distance the propeller moves in the air under an ideal condition of a complete rotation.
The propellers are also often divided into \"slow-flying\" and ordinary propellers.
Slow-speed propellers are commonly used for gear applications or for low-speed applications, and have a curved front edge to improve efficiency.
To improve efficiency, the common propeller has a straight front and is usually used with a faster motor.
Gears in RC World are usually sold only as a replacement for RC car gearboxes.
They never sell by diameter, but only by spacing (
Spacing of teeth)
And the number of teeth.
The straight gear is usually a large gear, which is turned by a small gear and is a smaller gear directly connected to the motor.
The battery has many different shapes and sizes, chemistry and ratings.
The two most common chemicals in RC applications are NiMH or NiCd and lithium polymer batteries. NiMH (
Nickel Metal (hydrogen)and NiCd (Nickel-Cadmium)
The battery is heavy, weak and outdated.
The only benefit is that they can be a little cheaper and less sensitive to impact, vibration, overcharging, and deep discharge.
The lithium polymer battery is lighter in weight and smaller in size, can provide huge current and has a very large capacity.
The volume and weight of the 5000 mAh Lipo battery is approximately equivalent to 2500 mah of the NiMH battery.
However, if they are pierced, discharged too far, or charged too far, they are \"inflated\" or inflated.
This means that the battery is about to explode.
Don\'t use this battery anymore. handle it safely.
If you continue, it will most likely burst out in a large flame and fire chemicals and burning things anywhere.
Never short these batteries, they will most likely explode.
Charging: buy yourself a good charger and I can recommend turniy Accucell-6.
Most Chargers don\'t have a built-in power supply, so make sure the charger has enough power.
Follow all the charging instructions that come with the charger and place the battery in a fire-proof container or bag.
Don\'t leave it unattended when charging.
The battery has many different ratings: mAh or Ah: for milliamperes or milliamperes.
This is the capacity of the battery.
1Ah = 1000 mAh, which means that the battery can provide an amplifier for an hour (
1000 an hour)
S and P: represent the number of connected units and the number of parallel units.
The number of series units determines the voltage, and the number of parallel units determines the capacity.
C rating: this is how much current the battery can give you.
Multiply the capacity of the battery by this rating within hours of amps to get the current of amps.
There are usually two assignments.
The lower is the continuous rating, and the higher is the pulse discharge rating.
I usually use a standardized connector for all my batteries so that I can use any battery with any device and can swap them easily.
I use the XT60 connector no matter what you use, just make sure you have a connector for all your batteries.
Get some silicone wires for your power connection as it is a flexible multi
Often stranding wires will make your life easier.
Thank you for taking the time to read this guide.
I hope you like it and I can offer some help.
I am by no means an expert in this, and I would love to get some advice on how to improve this guide, what to add, questions or comments.
Please vote for me in the remote control challenge!